European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana Den.u.Sehiff
Ubiquitous in Europe and Bulgaria. The caterpillars damage the bunch. They may also develop on buckthorn, hawthorn, raspberry, black currant, viburnum, clematis, etc. The caterpillars damage the resa, strawberry and ripe grapes. In Bulgaria the species develops 3 generations per year. It winters like a chrysalis in white cocoons in cracks in the bark, cracks in the struts, in withered clusters and scabby leaves. The butterfly flight begins in mid–April. There are 3 flight periods that do not overlap. One caterpillar damages 50–80 buds. The caterpillar eats 17–20 berries. Damage to the grains is conducive to grey rot infection.
The mass flight is 3–7 days after the appearance of the first butterflies. Mass egg laying — after 6–10 days. The fecundity of one female is 60–80–160 eggs.
The eggs are laid singly, rarely in 4–7 eggs, on the buds, inflorescences, and stamens. This is the optimum period for trichogramma settlement. The second generation flies towards the end of June. The flight of the third generation lasts up to 40 days and begins in late July.
On the vine, the cotton and winter bollworm are also harmful, as well as the beet armyworm, the eggs of which are also parasitized by the trichogramma.
Rate of displacement (colonization). In areas with favourable conditions — no more than 3 displacements — 2 against the first generation and 1 more against the third generation.
In the areas where the HTC is 0.5–0.8; 1.3–1.7–four displacements.
Monitoring with pheromone traps. When 3–4 males/capture in the first generation and 6–8 in the second and third generations are captured, a trichogramma displacement is conducted after 2–3 days. We propose edge — row displacement along the periphery of the vineyard where noise from different plant species accumulates.
Pupae and cocoons